Most Escherichia/Shigella species are harmless but certain strains of E. coli in particular can be very contagious and can lead to painful abdominal cramps, diarrhea and fever. Others can cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. The types of E. coli that can cause diarrhea can be transmitted through contaminated water or food, or through contact with animals or persons.
Escherichia (pronounced “esh-er-EE-key-ah”) is a genus of bacteria whose group contains eight species. The best known is probably Escherichia coli, generally abbreviated to E. coli.
Although Shigella (pronounced as it is written, “shig-ELLA”) is technically a separate genus, with four species, its species are inseparable from Escherichia coli in DNA terms, which is why they are often bracketed together.
Symptoms generally start one or two days after exposure to infection, and usually last for five to seven days.
Elevated levels of Escherichia/Shigella without the presence of other symptoms should not be a case for alarm, although—as ever—if you have concerns, it would be wise to seek advice from a medical professional.
1. Zuo, G., Xu, Z., & Hao, B. (2013). Shigella Strains Are Not Clones of Escherichia coli but Sister Species in the Genus Escherichia. Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics, 11(1), 61–65.
2. Gu, B., Ke, X., Pan, S., Cao, Y., Zhuang, L., Yu, R., Tong, M. (2013). Prevalence and trends of aminoglycoside resistance in. The Journal of Biomedical Research, 27(2), 103–115.
3. Shigella review on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. http://www.cdc.gov/shigella/index.html
Welcome to uBiome!
We are the world’s first effort to map the human microbiome with citizen science. Our sequencing service provides information and tools for you to explore the populations of bacteria that live on and inside your body.
What We Do
Based on research from the NIH Human Microbiome Project, we've perfected the technology to perform large-scale microbiome studies. The knowledge we'll gain may (one day) empower people to live healthier and accelerate our understanding of the world around us. For the individual, we leverage this technology to help you better understand your own microbiome. Here's what you can learn:
DISCOVER WHAT’S LIVING INSIDE YOU
An estimated 500 - 1,000 species of bacteria live in the human gut. Get the breakdown of what yours are down to the genus level.
HOW IS YOUR GUT FUNCTIONING?
How well does your gut metabolize caffeine? How about carbohydrates? Our NEW functionality tab lets you compare 109 different functions of your gut, and how they stack up against others.
SNAPSHOT IN TIME
If you’re thinking of trying something new – a new diet, probiotics, or anything else – get a “before” picture of your microbiome to compare with your “after”, and see what has changed.
COMPARE YOUR MICROBIOME
Find out how you're different. Is your microbiome more like a vegan's or a heavy drinker's? Are your bacteria more or less diverse than other people of your gender? See how you measure up.
BE A CITIZEN SCIENTIST
We give you the data, what will you do with it? Team up with uBiome to research the microbiome, and discover something new.
Every day, we are learning more about the human microbiome, and we hope to have many discoveries to share as we go. It’s a vast new frontier of scientific research. Thank you for being part of it with us!
What Happens Next
After ordering, we will send your kit straight to you! Collect your samples with a quick swab
of the site (or sites), and mail it back to us in the provided prepaid envelope.
Your samples will travel to our office in San Francisco, where theyíll be run through our state-of-the-art DNA sequencing lab. Expect to get your results back 4-6 weeks after we receive your sample.
You will then receive access to a personal dashboard (app.ubiome.com) which breaks down the types and functions of bacteria found in your sample.
Here is where you can see your diversity score as well as learn, explore, and compare everything related to your bacteria.