Salmonella enterica

Salmonella enterica is a species of bacteria that is often pathogenic (disease-causing), leading to an infection called Salmonellosis. The main symptoms of this condition, which generally appear 12 to 72 hours after infection, are diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and abdominal cramps. The illness generally lasts between four and seven days, most people recovering without requiring treatment.

"The majority of cases of Salmonellosis are the result of eating food (usually beef, poultry, or eggs) from animals that have been infected by Salmonella enterica.

It is estimated that Salmonella enterica causes over a million illnesses per year in the US.

Salmonella enterica's genus (Salmonella) refers to the US Department of Agriculture's Daniel Salmon, whose team discovered Salmonella at the end of the 19th century. The species name enterica is a combination of Greek and Latin, meaning 'pertaining to the gut'. Salmonella enterica is pronounced «sal-MEN-ella en-TERRY-cah.»

There are six subspecies of Salmonella enterica, which between them have over 2,000 'serovars.' Serovars are varieties of a microorganism, distinguishable by differing cell structures. Many of these serovars are non-pathogenic.


1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web-site: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/ 

2. Parry, C.M., Hein, T.T., Doughan, G., White, N.J., Farrar, J. J. (2002). Typhoid Fever. The New England Journal of Medicine, 347(22), 1770-1782. 

3. Rabsch, W., Andrews, H. L., Kingsley, R. A., Prager, R., Tschäpe, H., Adams, L. G., & Bäumler, A. J. (2002). Minireview. Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium and Its Host-Adapted Variants, Infection and Immunity, 70(5), 2249-2255. 

4. Guard-Petter, J. (2001). Minireview. The chicken, the egg and Salmonella enteritidis. Environmental Microbiology, 3(7), 421-430."

Welcome to uBiome!

We are the world’s first effort to map the human microbiome with citizen science. Our sequencing service provides information and tools for you to explore the populations of bacteria that live on and inside your body.

What We Do

Based on research from the NIH Human Microbiome Project, we've perfected the technology to perform large-scale microbiome studies. The knowledge we'll gain may (one day) empower people to live healthier and accelerate our understanding of the world around us. For the individual, we leverage this technology to help you better understand your own microbiome. Here's what you can learn:



An estimated 500 - 1,000 species of bacteria live in the human gut. Get the breakdown of what yours are down to the genus level.



How well does your gut metabolize caffeine? How about carbohydrates? Our NEW functionality tab lets you compare 109 different functions of your gut, and how they stack up against others.



If you’re thinking of trying something new – a new diet, probiotics, or anything else – get a “before” picture of your microbiome to compare with your “after”, and see what has changed.



Find out how you're different. Is your microbiome more like a vegan's or a heavy drinker's? Are your bacteria more or less diverse than other people of your gender? See how you measure up.



We give you the data, what will you do with it? Team up with uBiome to research the microbiome, and discover something new.



Every day, we are learning more about the human microbiome, and we hope to have many discoveries to share as we go. It’s a vast new frontier of scientific research. Thank you for being part of it with us!

What Happens Next

Kit Sample

After ordering, we will send your kit straight to you! Collect your samples with a quick swab of the site (or sites), and mail it back to us in the provided prepaid envelope.

Your samples will travel to our office in San Francisco, where theyíll be run through our state-of-the-art DNA sequencing lab. Expect to get your results back 4-6 weeks after we receive your sample.


You will then receive access to a personal dashboard (app.ubiome.com) which breaks down the types and functions of bacteria found in your sample.

Here is where you can see your diversity score as well as learn, explore, and compare everything related to your bacteria.